Human nature being what it is, we tend to disassociate ourselves from things that we do not understand. We enthusiastically forfeited the breaker-point ignition for the accuracy and dependability of the electronic ignition, as well as slow-burning, poor-flowing cylinder heads for the latest offerings.
But when the concern turns to fuel systems, we cling tightly to our beloved carburetor. The carburetor certainly is a wonderful mixing device for air and fuel-the power levels produced by a NHRA Pro Stock engine certainly prove that-and it has brought us through the first 50 years of HRM and will be there during the decades to come.
Now, however, it is forced to share the stage with OEM and aftermarket electronic fuel-injection systems. With early 5.NFS INJECTOR SETTINGS - GAMING MODE - MODULE MAGISK - ROOT
Thus, they are the ideal platform for the up-and-coming generation of hot rodders. Low-cost, high-production numbers, and the shrinking supply of box Novas, make these cars the future of hot rodding.
The fly in this considerable ointment, however, is the rodders who have had a bad experience with fuel injection, which has turned them away from this technology forever.
There is no denying that an electronic fuel-injection system is much more complicated than a mechanical fuel pump and a Holley double-pumper, but an open mind and some good tech stories are all that are needed to uncover its virtues. The concept of what is different about modifying fuel-injected engines must be established. With this in mind, we submit the following 10 most-deadly sins that a carb rodder falls into when switching over to a high-tech fuel system. Using factory EFI Intake Manifolds The most common error made is using factory intake components on a heavily modified engine.
Subliminally, most enthusiasts consider the plenum, the runners, and the lower manifold to be integral parts of the fuel-injection system. The normal scenario usually includes a killer-stroked small-block, good heads, and a large cam stifled by a stock TPI unit. The result is an engine that makes no power. In frustration, the owner reverts to a carb on a single-plane manifold, and the engine runs great.
Would you ever use this combination with a stock carbureted smog intake? Of course not. This is EFI sin number 1. All of the design work that was executed to develop the GM TPI system was based upon the flow characteristics of the lowly ci engine. These systems were flow-limited on a stocklet alone on a modified one.That every energy-expending action you make—from the tiniest facial expression to a full-on sprint—requires instantaneous and precise fuel intake.
Thankfully, humans are built to automatically store energy and use it when needed, and our mouths do the rest. Cold and hot startup, idle, WOT and every rpm and load in between requires an instantaneous, precise amount of fuel to perform flawlessly. The term fuel injector is a misnomer: as your high-pressure fuel pump keeps feeding your fuel system, without injectors stopping the flow your engine would be instantly overwhelmed by fuel.
So these little cylinders actually prevent fuel from being constantly injected. Milliseconds later, it grounds the injector, the injector opens, and the exact amount of fuel is pulsed.
The amount of fuel an injector releases depends on three factors. The first is pulse widthor the amount of time that the injector is open. This should not be confused with duty cyclewhich is the ratio of how long the signal is active compared to how long it could be active. The second is flow rateor how much fuel can flow in a predetermined time—pounds per hour is the domestic standard, and CCs per minute can also be used. There are two distinct types of fuel injectors: high impedance units, and low impedance units.
A high-impedance injector aka saturated uses a high resistance value of around 12 ohms across its coil, but runs at low current levels to keep the circuitry cool. Typically, production vehicles use high-impedance injectors. A low-impedance injector aka peak-and-hold uses low-resistance coils that only need in the ballpark of ohms, but needs higher current levels to operate.
If these injectors constantly ran at the required amp rating, it would overheat and damage the drivers. Typically, aftermarket ECUs and race applications utilize low-impedance injectors.
Corvettes adopted fuel injection over 50 years ago. InRochester Ramjet mechanical fuelie systems created 1 hp-per-cube s, and this technology peaked in with horse s. For more info, check out this fascinating piece on Corvette mechanical fuel injection. However, its Computer Command Control ECU used sensor input to command injector pulses, which were actuated by solenoids atop the injectors. But due to the absence of a Corvette, Cross-Fire Injection only lasted two model years, and was shelved after the horse, lb-ft L83 in the model.
In stark contrast to the Cross-Fire system, MPFI gave each cylinder a dedicated fuel injector that worked with a high-pressure fuel system. This allowed much more precise fueling, which resulted in more power and even better drivability and economy.
As such, it was both a technical leap forward and fairly affordable, especially for the mids. Instead of firing the injectors indiscriminately during the combustion cycle, sequential injection fired each cylinder independently, just as its intake valve opened, for highly precise fueling.
While these systems require additional cam and crank sensors to work, they greatly improve idle, drivability, mileage, and emissions. Sequential fuel injection started on base Corvettes in and continued through the LS series of engines, a mainstay of Corvette fuel injection for 20 years.
That increased greatly with the first-year TPIs, which ran 37 psi of fuel pressure. That gives them over 1, psi of fuel pressure, and combined with a combustion-chamber location and precise spray pattern, DI offers superior fuel atomization and a more complete burn. This maximizes cooling, allows a higher compression ratio, and results in higher power, better economy, and fewer emissions compared to a port-injection system.By TeconMoonSep 9, 1, 6, Page 1 of Level 9. Joined: Aug 7, Messages: Country:.
Far more features than the previous "script". NET Framework v4.
NET Framework 3. Generated Title IDs will never overwrite a legitimate retail title. Last edited by TeconMoonOct 20, VlackrsY0shIIswosho and others like this. Level Joined: May 31, Messages: 1, Country:. Oh wow, this is awesome!
I will try it when I've got the time. Minilandl likes this. Level 4. Joined: Jul 3, Messages: Country:. MartyDreamy "Need a ride, handsome? Level 8. Joined: Jul 1, Messages: Country:. Finally, an easy script for injecting the Wii games Good job!
Hiprabovis Somni/Lkt Injection 10 dose
Saintseiya Advanced Member. Joined: Sep 4, Messages: 52 Country:. Great for sure it's easier now I can try wwe13 for sure plus mw3. Level 1. Joined: May 18, Messages: 56 Country:. Last edited by craftsk8Sep 9, Columbo GBAtemp Maniac.
Level 7. Joined: Jul 19, Messages: 1, Country:. Joined: Jan 10, Messages: Country:.Laravel is an open-source PHP framework for web development. It is free and was created by Taylor Otwell. It is primarily used for the development of web applications.
It was licensed under MIT. It was initially released in the year June Laravel provides a rich set of functionalities for the development with the latest features.
The security features on Laravel are very good in the case of web security where the web attacks are prevalent. Lumen is a micro framework that was created by the creator of Laravel i. Taylor Otwell. Lumen means the smaller, simpler, leaner and faster version of the complete web application framework. Lumen framework has a foundation level which is at the same level of Laravel with most of the similar components.
Lumen has less configuration and different routing parameters in configuring the web applications and helps in the fast development with speed. Below is the top 9 difference between Laravel vs Lumen:.
Both Laravel vs Lumen are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Difference Between Laravel vs Lumen :. The choice should be Laravel in the case of community support and standard features and many third-party tools multiple integration tools. Laravel is more stable and requires more learning compared to Lumen and is recommended in the case of smaller applications that does not need performance and requires security of the application whereas Lumen can be preferred in the case of the application performance irrespective of the features and integration facilities which can be improved using different other components and efficient techniques.
The choice of selecting the framework depends on the parameters required for the application and the organization using the application, security features, community support, and easier or faster technical resolutions in the cases of glitches or failures in the application functionalities or components.
This has a been a guide to the top difference between Laravel vs Lumen. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more —. Your email address will not be published. Forgot Password? Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Skip to footer Laravel vs Lumen.
Popular Course in this category.Chemical signals are prevalent in sexual communication systems. Mate recognition has been extensively studied within the Lepidoptera, where the production and recognition of species-specific sex pheromone signals are typically the defining character.
While the specific blend of compounds that makes up the sex pheromones of many species has been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the evolution of pheromone-based mate recognition systems remain largely unknown. We have focused on two sets of sibling species within the leafroller moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotortrix that have rapidly evolved the use of distinct sex pheromone blends.
The compounds within these blends differ almost exclusively in the relative position of double bonds that are introduced by desaturase enzymes. Our results demonstrate that interspecific sex pheromone differences are associated with differential regulation of the same desaturase gene in two genera of moths.
We suggest that differential gene regulation among members of a multigene family may be an important mechanism of molecular innovation in sex pheromone evolution and speciation. Chemical signals are prevalent in sexual communication systems, especially within the Lepidoptera where sex pheromones are typically one of the defining characteristics of species. We have isolated six desaturases from two groups of sibling species of leafroller moths belonging to the genera Ctenopseustis and Planotortrix.
Functional analyses in yeast and quantitative RT—PCR indicate that three of the desaturases are involved in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in these species. In the pheromone glands of species that utilize Z tetradecenyl acetate as sex pheromone component C. Our results demonstrate that interspecific sex pheromone differences are associated with differential regulation of the same desaturase gene in these two genera of moths. Based on these findings differential gene regulation among members of a multigene family may be an important mechanism of molecular innovation in sex pheromone evolution and speciation.
Variation is the raw material of evolution; however the nature of this variation remains a topic of much discussion amongst evolutionary biologists . The potential role in evolution of mutations that impact gene regulation rather than the amino acid sequence of a protein was initially proposed in the s.
Since then the relative importance in evolution of regulatory mutations those affecting gene expression versus structural mutations those resulting in amino acid substitutions within the coding region of a protein has been debated e.
While structural mutations between orthologous proteins are easy to identify, mutations that affect the regulation of a gene are more difficult to recognize. Regulatory mutations can fall close to the gene in its promoter region cis -regulatory mutations or act at a distance from the gene trans -regulatory mutations. Cis -regulatory mutations usually result in the gain or loss of a site involved in binding a regulatory factor, such as a transcription factor, whereas trans -acting regulatory mutations typically affect the transcription factors themselves.
Interestingly, trans -acting regulatory mutations can involve both regulatory and structural mutations of the transcription factor.Saved - View your saved items. We're sorry. We couldn't save this product at this time.
10 Common EFI Mistakes - The 10 Deadly EFI Sins - Cover Story
Hey, everybody. I'm Justin with AmericanMuscle. You should be checking out the Ford Racing option here if you're looking for an affordable replacement for a set of faulty stock injectors or if the quest for big power has you looking for some more fuel.
And let's be honest guys. The fuel injector is really only one part of the equation here. You have fuel lines, fuel pumps, regulators, all that other good stuff, but for this video we're just focusing on the Ford Racing injectors here. Now obviously, guys, there's gonna be a huge difference between the two injectors. So let's start with the smaller option, the pounders here, and that's actually the one I have with me on the table. Now, as the name suggests, these are designed to flow 24 pounds of fuel per hour at 24 psi.
These are essentially gonna be a factory replacement for any '05 to '09 three-valve GT and even some of the earlier naturally aspirated four-valve Mustangs. These are also gonna be a huge upgrade for any two-valve GT or basically any V6 prior to Now, if you have a or a newer V6 or GT, these pounders are not gonna be for you because your factory injector is actually slightly bigger than these.
So if you have an '87 to '04 GT or a 4-Liter V6 and you plan on doing a bolt-on naturally aspirated setup, even a mild boost application or some nitrous, these are gonna be an affordable upgrade for you.
HTTP Injector Lite
Now, again, I would probably recommend these things to around a horsepower range, give or take, and that's gonna depend on your fuel pressure or what kind of fuel you're using and also whether you're gonna be boosted or naturally aspirated. They are gonna featured an 11 to 18 ohm impedance and they do utilize that EV6 body style and connector, making them essentially plug and play for any S or those early naturally aspirated core valve Mustangs.
Anything else that utilizes a Jetronic-style connector is going to need to purchase the adapter kit, but not a big deal, guys. Now let's switch our focus to Ford's big boy option here, the Ford Racing pounders, which again, will flow 60 pounds of fuel per hour, at 43 PSI. For the most part, guys, this is gonna be plenty of injector for most builds out there. And I say most builds because these will easily support around the wheel horsepower range when the injector is starting to near its full duty cycle.
If you are planning on making a little bit more than that, you can always check out Ford Racing's pound option, which is a little bit more affordable, or if you have money to burn, you can always check out Injector Dynamics options as well. They are a little pricey, but they definitely make a solid injector. Now, these pounders are 11 to 12 ohm impedance and they do feature that same EV6 body style as the pound injectors, therefore the same fitment applies.Page 1 of 8.
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Laravel vs Lumen
Joined: Sep 13, Messages: Country:. I have no problem with german, cause I'm from germany — Posts automatically merged - Please don't double post! HaloEliteLegend Zzzz. Joined: Oct 17, Messages: 1, Country:.
Ooh, nice going Nico! SonicvMario Member. Level 5. Joined: Jun 10, Messages: 33 Country:. Would there be any chance of adding a way to customize the screen layout for the injects and a way of automating the meta.
Otherwise this is working perfectly. SonicvMario likes this. Level 6. Joined: Jan 4, Messages: Country:. Thanks for this! I'm really looking forward to seeing your N64 Injector! Just yesterday I decided to try and create installable N64 channels, but as I don't have a clue how I should be doing it, I'll just wait for your injector. Level 2. Joined: Jul 20, Messages: Country:. Dekirai likes this. Azmort GBAtemp Regular. Joined: Sep 25, Messages: Country:. You must log in or sign up to post here.
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